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Premium Member
13,649 Posts
Discussion Starter #1 (Edited)
A good idea for a sticky thread in the Body/Interior section. If you have any How to's or DIY that may be benificial send to me or post it here. I'll trim and fit as needed. A good example would be the first post below on MIG Welding.

*****Any conversational posts in this thread WILL be deleted.***** (No offense intended to the deletees)

Premium Member
13,649 Posts
Discussion Starter #2 (Edited)
MIG Welding

Originally posted by Nwayne

Here's some tips from the Summit Racing web site. It's a little long but some good reading.

Tips for the Budding MIG Welder
So you took (or are about to take) the plunge and got a MIG welder. Congratulations--you're about to earn yourself a new title: Welder Man. Not only will you be able to make brackets, stitch together body panels, and fix broken parts for yourself, you'll have the honor of doing it for your car pals, too.

We know you're probably itching to fire up that new welder and make stuff. But before you begin, we have some handy tips, courtesy of the welder folks at Lincoln Electric, to help you get your fabricating career off to a good start. While this info is geared to the new welder, you guys that have been making the sparks fly for awhile might learn a little something too.

What Can I Weld?
Most home shops have a machine similar to Lincoln Electric's MIG PAK 10, a household current (115 volt) portable unit that can weld virtually any light gauge mild steel from 24 gauge (1/16 inch) through 12 gauge (1/8 inch). This type of welder is ideal for joining body panels, making brackets, and other non-structural work. For jobs like building a mild steel chassis or roll cage, repairing a trailer, and working with material from 1/8 to 5/16 inch thick, a larger 230 volt welder would be a better choice. The higher amperage range of this machine will allow you to lay down a weld in a single pass more often, eliminating the need for second or third passes. See the Welder Specs sidebar for info on the PAK 10 and its bigger brother, the 230 volt PAK 15.

The thickness of the metal you're joining determines the welder's wire speed and amperage requirement. Thicker metal requires a faster wire feed and higher heat. Thinner metal, like body panels, require a slower wire feed speed and lower voltage to avoid burning through the metal. Using a home shop-type MIG welder on material thicker than a 1/4 inch will result in what is called cold casting-welds that look good, but just "sit" on top of the work piece and do not penetrate the material. This is a sure ticket to a weld failure. To MIG weld material more than a 5/16 inch thick, you need a higher capacity industrial machine.

A MIG welder cannot be used on all metals. To see if the material in question can be welded, attach a magnet to it. If the magnet sticks, you can probably weld it. You can also test the material by nicking it with a metal file. If it nicks easily, it'll be easy to weld. The exceptions to these two tests are cast iron and 4130 chromemoly steel. Cast iron will hold a magnet and nick easily, but is very difficult to weld and is best left to the pros. Due to the properties of its alloy, chromemoly really requires a TIG welder. You can learn more about welding chromemoly in the Chromemoly Welding sidebar.

Choosing Wire
Another area that can be confusing is choosing the proper wire--or more technically speaking, the electrode. MIG wire is usually mild steel, electro-plated with a thin layer of copper to protect it from rusting, improve electrical conductivity, increase gun contact tip life, and improve arc performance.

Wire diameter is related to the thickness of the metal to be welded and the type of welder you have. For example, using a smaller diameter wire makes it easier to weld thinner plate. For a 110/115 volt welder, .025 inch diameter wire is the smallest available, and is the easiest to use on very thin material. A .030 inch wire would weld slightly thicker material a little faster. Most people with a 230 volt machine are welding heavier plate steel, and can step up to .030 inch or even .035 inch diameter solid wire because it deposits weld metal faster.

Stay away from wire made for production welding, wire hardfaced to resist wear, and most specialty wires as they will exceed the capacity of a typical home MIG welder. You must be careful to match the output voltage of your machine with the voltage requirement of the wire, wire diameter, and wire feed speeds to make sure you have a compatible system.

Shielding Gas
MIG welders use a shielding gas to keep the welds free from contamination and to prevent weld porosity. For most mild steel applications, carbon dioxide (CO2) will provide adequate shielding. There are other gas mixtures available, designed for specific uses. Here is a list of the more common gas mixes and their benefits:
• 100% CO2: Lowest price, generally greatest weld penetration, higher levels of spatter. Limited to short circuit and globular transfer
• 75% Argon/25% CO2: Higher price than 100% CO2 with lower levels of spatter and a flatter weld bead
• 85% Argon/15% CO2: Good combination of low spatter and excellent penetration for heavier plate applications and steel with more mill/surface scale
• 90% Argon/10% CO2: Good combination of low spatter and good penetration for a variety of steel plate sizes

MIG vs. Flux Core
You may have heard of a welding process called flux core that can be done with your MIG welder. Unlike MIG welding, which uses a separate shielding gas to prevent weld contamination, the flux core process uses wire with material in its core that produces shielding gases and fluxing agents when burned by the heat of the arc. In other words, flux core welding is internally shielding instead of externally shielding. That makes it ideal for use outdoors because there is no gas to dissipate in a breeze.

Here are the pros and cons of MIG welding:
• Lower spatter levels than flux core-less slag to remove, better appearance, faster cleaning time. Soft arc less likely to burn through thin material
• Easier to learn, more forgiving of erratic arc length and gun travel speed. Procedure settings are more forgiving
• Can weld a wider range of material including stainless steel, nickel alloys, and aluminum when used with proper guns, shielding gas, liners, drive rolls, and wire/electrode
• Requires external shielding gas and supporting parts (cylinder, hose, regulator, solenoid, flow meter)
• All paint, rust and surface contamination must be removed
• Will not properly weld materials above 1/8 inch (115 volt) or 5/16 inch (230 volt) thick

While you can use your MIG welder for flux-core welding, you will need additional parts (drive rolls, shielding gas, gun liners, gun contact tips) to change from one application to the other. Check with your local welding supplies dealer or Lincoln Electric on what is required.

Here are the pros and cons of flux core welding:
• Shielding/flux is built into the wire for positive shielding even in windy conditions. External shielding gas and equipment are not needed, so setup is faster and easier
• Ideal for welding thicker materials--less prone to cold lapping
• Not recommended for very thin materials (less than 20 gauge)
• Machine settings need to be precise. The gun must be held consistently at the proper angle to create a good weld
• Creates spatter and slag that need to be removed for painting or finishing

Welding Aluminum
Sooner or later, you're gonna want to try your hand at welding aluminum. You can do it with a MIG machine; the ideal unit is one of the higher-end "pulsing" MIGs that alternate high and low electrical current to "blend" into the aluminum rather than burn into it. The result is a cleaner, stronger bond.

The vast majority of fabricators use TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welders on aluminum because it produces a very strong, very clean-looking weld. Aluminum requires a very hot spark to weld, and often has an oxide surface coating that needs to be removed to get a proper weld. TIG uses high power AC current to generate the required spark and to break through the aluminum's oxide coating. Plus, TIG can be used on very thin sheet material.

If you want to tackle MIG-welding aluminum, we strongly suggest getting comfortable welding steel first. You will need to thoroughly remove the oxide and any contaminants with a stainless steel brush and/or special solvents, then clean the surfaces to be welded. Special aluminum wire and aluminum wire-compatible drive rolls, welding gun cable liner, and gun contact tips are required. You will also need to use 100% pure Argon for a shielding gas because it is cleaner and provides better weld penetration than other gases.

Need more info on MIG welding? Check out our handy Helpful Hints sidebar with general tips on setting up and using your MIG welder. You can also get more in-depth tech and product information on the Lincoln Electric web site ( But the best thing you can do is to get out in the garage and practice, practice, practice. You'll make a mess and create some nasty-looking stuff, but once you make that first perfect panel stitch or first useable bracket, you'll wonder why you didn't learn to MIG weld a lot sooner.

More on MIG Welding

Originally posted by the Flyer and provided by Taz3

More on welding a few posts down.

More welding links..

Premium Member
13,649 Posts
Discussion Starter #3 (Edited)
Hood alignment made easy.

Stolen from another site.(Team Chevelle)

Aligning the hood takes an approach that is often over looked. The hinge needs to "rotate" to lower or raise the hood. I will send you a crisp dollar bill if you can not with normal hinge adjustment bring that hood down (and even below) where it needs to be.

Hood alignment: Let’s start with raising and lowering the rear of the hood. If the car you are working on has a hinge that sits on top of the cowl, your only options are to shim or bend the hinge. Bending the hinge slightly is one way to move it. If you need to come up in the rear you can put a small block of wood or other item on the hinge, to bend it. When you close the hood down (NOT ALL THE WAY) it will get in the way of the hood closing and bend the rear or the hinge up. If you need to bend it down, the only option may be to remove it and bend it a little. You can also shim the bolts between the hood and the hinge, more on this later.

If you have a hood where the hinge mounts on the side of the fender or the side of the cowl like with an older car or truck, you want to "rotate" the hinge on the fender. Just pushing the hinge up and down will give you very little movement on the top of the hood.

This is the strange little trick that you have to remember, if you raise the back of the hood on the hinge or raise the back of the hinge on the fender the hood will go up. If you raise the "front" of the back of the hood ON THE HINGE or the hinge to the fender it will go down. What you have to remember is you are working with a pivot point in the hinge, not a stationary part.
If you loosen the FRONT bolt on the hood (where it bolts to the hinge) and put a shim, or washer between the hood and hinge, this will LOWER the hood on that side. If you put that same washer under the rear bolt it will RAISE the rear of the hood on that side.

So, if you loosen the bolts from the hinge to fender and close the hood, the hinge will rotate on down in the front right? This will raise the REAR of the hood like putting a shim in the back bolt between the hinge and hood!
What you need to do to lower the back the hood is to loosen the bolts (only slightly) and PUSH UP on the front of the hood. This rotates the hinges back, thus raising the front of the hinge and lowering the hood in the back.
If the hinges are warn out it won’t change how high the hood sits when the wear, not by more than a fraction of an inch. And I have never seen a car with these style hinges that you couldn't put the hood a half inch LOWER than the fenders if you wanted to. The adjustment is HUGE on these cars. That is one of the things that is easy to do on them is align panels.
I recommend you remove the striker or latch from the hood so that you can move it up and down without worrying about the latch grabbing the hood. After you have aligned the hood, take a piece of dumb-dumb or clay or something similar and put it on the latch. This way you can see exactly where it hits when you do install the latch. You bring the hood down till you just tap this dumb-dumb but DON'T LATCH IT. Just so the hood makes an indentation in the clay/dumb-dumb. This tells you where you have to move the latch.

I do this at work everyday, by myself so if you can't get help this is the trick. Always leave one bolt on the hinge tight. If you want to rotate it back, leave the front bolt tight. If you want to rotate it forward, leave the rear bolt tight. When you move the hood forward or back on the hinge, leave the bolts snug enough that you have to tap on the edge of the hood to get it to move. Or if it needs to go back, leave the bolts a little snug, and wiggle the hood up and down and the weight of the hood will make it slide down. Remember it only needs a 1/16" or so to make a 3/16" or more change at the front. To pull the hood forward on the hinge loosen them so they are still a little snug so you have to pull up on the back of the hood to make it slide that little bit. If you loosen it up so it moves anywhere you want it, YOU WILL NEVER KNOW HOW MUCH YOU MOVED IT AND YOU WILL MOVE IT TOO MUCH, GUARANTEED.

Get the hood laying flat first, then move the hood forward or back on each side to make the hood fit the hole between the fenders. If the gap is large on the front right and small on the front left, then the hood needs to me moved back on the right side. As you move the hood back on a side it will close up the gap in the front of that side and open it at the rear of that side.
You may need to move fenders too. Just do each change slowly, move it VERY LITTLE. Look at the bolt and washer as you move the panel, you will see where the washer used to be, the amount is much easier to control if you watch the washer movement.

If you need to move the hood up or down at the front, you have a few ways to do it. First, on each side there are the “bumpers”. The hood bumpers are located at each front corner and look like a bolt with a rubber pad on top. Just unlock the jam nut and raise or lower the “bolt” so it holds the hood at the height you need to match the fender. You may find that the hood won’t go low enough even with the bumper down far enough. The latch may not be down far enough. When you close the hood, you shouldn’t be able to pull up on the hood or push it down. The latch should be tight enough to hold it against the bumpers tight, but not too tight. If you have to apply too much force to open the hood or it opens with a loud POP, the latch is probably too tight. If it is at the right height but you can lift it up some, then the latch needs to be moved down.

Premium Member
13,649 Posts
Discussion Starter #6 (Edited)
Members Tips for welding sheetmetal.

Members Tips for welding sheetmetal.

1fasbu said:
Follow the settings on the inside panel(if there is). You should be running .023 solid core wire(NOT FLUX CORE) with a mixed gas. Mig mix gold would be praxair's version. Weld voltage should be close to the minimum(about 2-3 volts in my mind, with about 40 wire speed).

Now for the bad news. This machine (MillerMatic175 220v) has what is called wire speed tracking. It's a dose. I dislike this welder and because of it, I would not buy one.

It automatically adjusts your wire speed for you(in relation to voltage). Handy eh? For experienced trades people it's manageable, for the weekend "lets weld a patch panel on" person, less than impressive.

If I look at the pic you provided, my first thought is that the existing sheet metal is too thin. Check the thickness to your patch panel. Even though it's not rusted on the outside, rusting on the inside will reduce

Another tip, when prepping the existing edge, DO NOT use a grinder. Grinding this edge will reduce the thickness too much(causing burn through like yours). Use an orbital with 80-120 paper.

When you burn through like that, turn the welder down and tack weld, hold the wire in one spot and pull the trigger for one second. Move over an eight inch, do the same. Cool with compressed air. The surrounding material should never get so hot that you can't hold your hand on it.

And also NO GAPS, tight fitups.:)
Good luck,
novaBRO said:
back off the power and wire speed a hair. just play with it until it is where u want it. and be sure you are getting good penetration.
SuperSport said:
On sheet metal all you can do is stich weld. Otherwise, you will blow holes through the metal. Maybe, some experianced guys can pull off large beads.
SparkysSS said:
Your welder settings are not correct thats why your having problems. Machine setup is the biggest problem for most guys. I don't recall if the Miller 175 has the variable voltage settings, I thought it did, as well as the wire speed. I have a Hobart 185 MIG, and the voltage settings are a fixed range.
Open the side door of your welder and there should be a chart with the settings to use. It will probably say 20 gauge sheetmetal, it will give you the voltage setting to use, and the wirespeed. 70fpm on the wire speed is way too much. Secondly, are you using 75/25 gas mix? The chart will also give you the flow rate for the gas, usually about 20#. You didn't mention what size wire you are using, or if its fluxcore, but solid .023 wire is good for doing body panels. Another tip is to watch your gun angle to the workpiece. You want to make numerous tack welds, stitch-welds, not a continious bead. Jump around to keep the heat distortion down, and go back and fill in the gaps. For butt-welds try and keep your joints as even and tight as possible with clamps. As a rule the gap should be the same as or less than the wire size your using. Make sure your sheetmetal is really clean at least an inch on both sides of the joint to prevent contamination.
Test your settings on some scrap for practice. You may want to write down the settings that work the best for you, and the next time you do similar work you just dial=in the welder and go.
CDJr said:
Ya Brent, in addition to whats already been said, I would say what ya need to do is get a couple pieces of scrap and practice welding them together til you get the settings right. On sheet metal, you ALWAYS stitch weld, to prevent blowing holes and warping the metal from overheating. Its also important to have it very clean, I use a wire wheel etc to clean prior to welding. That way you dont erode the metal away.

Another thing thats often overlooked when welding sheet metal is the importance of cleaning the UNDERSIDE of whats being welded, since the entire thickness of the metal is being fused together, not just the top side, so if a piece is dirty on the bottom side, its going to be just as hard to weld as if the top side were dirty. Hope that makes sense :)

Also, with sheet metal, you shouldnt be "pushing" the weld puddle, you should be "pulling" it...i.e. your tip should be tilted in the direction youre welding.

Im sure everyone uses different techniques, as far as tip movement, but I have found the "circular" motion easiest for me on thin metals, always keeping the tip moving. Sometimes its better to go side-to-side in a Zig-Zag™ motion. But figuring it out only comes about with PRACTICE ;) With a little practice, youll figure out what works best for you. Itll make it much less frustrating, especially when youre blowing holes in a SCRAP piece instead of your car lol.

As always, lets review...scrap metal, wire wheel BOTH sides (if possible), cold beer, stitch weld, jump around to different areas, cold beer, let metal cool, inspect (with cold beer), adjust settings, pull weld puddle, keep tip moving, cold beer, inspect, repeat. :D
Real McCoy said:
Like many of the others have posted I too use the stitch method on sheet metal. I tack the panel in place stitching it in at various points. The stitch is just holding the gun and pulling the trigger for an instant to produce a 1/4 inch welded place. I continue to do this dividing the space so it gets welded closer together. This allows me to get the panels welded in with no gaps between the panels too. Hard to bridge a gap in sheet metal. I find I have better luck with .030 wire on the galvanized, zinc coated floor pans on most cars. When I get the panels stitched in with spaces of about 2 or 3 inches then I just stay in one place and stitch the gap closed. I overlap my panels too but just a small overlap of 1/4 inch is how I do it. On floors I weld both sides too. That's my method and it's been working for me for many years. Best of luck. RM
Phil said:
In addition to the good advice above try this method.
For welding sheet metal panels suggest you do this:, meaning do a quick tack weld the size of a small dot(you make one very quick touch of the trigger and release) then space about an inch forward to do the next tack weld and so on. Then come back to start your series of second tack welds by starting between these welds repeating the third series followed up by ever how many series of tack welds it takes to fill the seam. Do not run a bead! Take your time. Ever so often wire brush the area...Phil

Premium Member
13,649 Posts
Discussion Starter #7
Making fiberglass panels.

By Custom Jim

Below is a link to an all fiberglass enclosure I got done with Friday (still needs to be slicked down and painted but the customer wanted it for the weekend and it took longer than I thought just to get it that far).

Since you are wanting a mostly flat surface what I would do is make up a 1/4" thick Luan board template and then transfer this to a sheet of ½" - 3/4" thick flat wood like MDF or particle board but leave about 2" on all the edges. With a pencil line on this board left from tracing around the template cut the center of this piece of wood out.
Now take a second sheet of wood but this one thicker like 3/4" and cut it to the outside size of the first piece.
Now to keep the fiberglass from sticking to the wood you can use duct tape but on the above link with the sub enclosure for the boat I tried galvanized sheet metal. I got this in the heating and air conditioning duct work aisle at home depot. This piece of metal needs to be larger than the template you have.
Now to make a flat mold you take the one solid piece of 3/4" wood and place that on some saw horses and get it somewhat level because the fiberglass will be in a liquid state and level itself out somewhat.
Now take the sheet metal and place that on top of the 3/4" wood on the saw horses.
Now before you position the ½" or 3/4" top board with the center cut out on top of the sheet metal you need to take some duct tape and cover the inside cut edges and wrap the tape a little onto the bottom and top.
Now position the top board on top of the metal and every so often run some screws through the top board downward through it, through the sheet metal and then into the bottom board on the saw horses.
You might predrill the holes in the top board into the bottom board and then enlarge the holes in the top board so when the screws are tight it clamps all three parts together solidly with no voids between them (spots the fiberglass resin can creep into).
Now you have the mold all ready. Next you need to cut up some fiberglass matting to give you 4 layers of thickness and when cut set them aside.
Now mix up some fiberglass resin and catalyst and paint just resin on top of the metal inside the mold and on the inside edges of the top board. Doing this will give you a slicker finish when it's later popped out from the mold.
Now lay down some matting with just one layer and add resin to the matting to soak it and it will change from a white color to a more clear color. You will get some air bubbles but by dabbing the brush into them you will work 95% of them out.
Once the first layer is all soaked and wet, lay in your second layer and wet it down also with resin. If you run out of mixed resin, mix up some more but you will be stopping here after the second layer to let it harden up.
Now go take a break for a day or two. When you come back the resin and matting should be hardened. If so press on all of the edges to make sure the face of the fiberglass panel has not lifted from the metal and warped (mixed resin and catalyst create heat and if mixed too hot with too many layers will warp). If the first two layers are still in solid contact with the sheet metal then mix up some more resin and catalyst and add a third and fourth layer to the first two layers.
Now take another break for a day or two.
Now the 4 layers should be hardened up. Unscrew the wood top panel and remove the flat fiberglass panel from it. You might have to do some sanding but after that see how strong it is for you. If it's thick enough finish the job but is not clean the mold, apply new duct tape to the edges of the top wood panel and reassemble the mold with the panel you already built back in the center to add thickness to it.
If it doesn't want to lay flat against the sheet metal, use some angle clips to hold it down tight and then apply a 5th and 6th layer to the 4 layers already done.

You can use tape as a release layer on the car but the above might work better for you. Once you get it close then add small things with it in the car. You will find this stuff messy.

Attaching panels together.

I mixed up some resin and catalyst and then took some matting and cut it into fine pieces with scissors and then added that into my mixing bowl and stirred it in. I add enough matting to the resin to where it is a runny paste and then put some on the seam or joint, squeezed out the excess and then let it cure. Since the outside of the box was flat I positioned the box in a "V" fashion and then used some of the mixed up matting with resin and filled the bottom of the "V" on the inside of the two walls to where it would grab more of the two sides. I joined two sides and then joined the other two sides and then joined both of them together to form the box.
Once I had the 4 sides joined I stretched plastic over the one end and then lay it on a flat board and then through the open end of the box added matting to make the 5th wall of the box. When that cured I peeled of the plastic but it was not as flat as when I made the side panels on top of the galvanized sheet metal so I had to do some filling with even more chopped up matting and resin and then sand that down using a 7" diameter 36 grit sanding disc.
The front panel with the speaker hole was made in a separate mold and then to join that to the 5 sided box I again mixed up some shopped up matting and joined it all together. After it cured I sanded off the lip and joints.


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13,649 Posts
Discussion Starter #8
Hey Guys, i'll admit to my inexperience, been 25 or more years since i soldered a wire... i asked Jonesy about soldering and due to a mal-function in my brain, i prolly fergot the main points of his tutorial... maybe Jeff, you can post for everyone the finer points of terminating/soldering wires properly ???

i'm sure it'll be something that'll help others, not just me.

Jeff, if you'd like to post on this subject for this thread, feel free to delete my request and post a nice neat one like the ones you've posted above... thanks to Jeff or whoever supplies this info...

thanks for the DIY compulations :D

Johnny (Rotten at soldering) and needing help ;) :D
Eventually I'll re-do this with pics, eventually.

And this is how I do it, others techniques may very well differ but this works for me.

Soldering 101.

1st order of business is to get a Good Soldering Iron. Some use butane but IMO 110VAC is the only way to go. Notice I said Iron, not Gun. Also IMO soldering guns SUCK. Why, keep reading and you'll see. Also the tip of the iron makes a huge impact on your work, I use a tip thats a 1/4 inch spade. No pinpoints.

Other necessary supplies are solder and heat shrink.

Solder can be Flux core or solid core. I prefer solid since I have a bitchin iron with a decent tip. But flux core makes for better heat transfer, but also sloppier "welds".

In the automotive world the majority of soldering is: Wire to wire and wire to terminal end and some wire to cup.

Wire to wire:

Carefully strip approximately 1/4 inch of casing from the end of each wire to be joined.

Repair the "wind" of the stripped wire. Give it back it's "natural" twist but try not to make it tighter then it was. This twist is used to optimise the flow of electricity. Also make the ends as straight as possible.

Tin the wire ends. Melt a drop of solder on top of your irons tip (this is where a wide tip comes in handy). Use the heated solder droplet to heat the wire end using side to side motion. When the droplet "flows" over the wire add enough solder to lightly, but completely, cover the wire. Be careful to not melt the edge of the casing since it will weaken the wire. Repeat for other wire. At this point use a needle nose to re-straighten the wire ends if necessary.

Cut a piece of heat shrink 3x the length of 1 wire end (3/4") the heat shrink and it must be at least twice the diameter of one of the pieces wires being joined. Slip the heat shrink over one wire and slide at least 12" away from the joint if possible.

Joining the wires. Lay your Iron on a stable work surface a close distance from the joint (this is where guns don't perform). Melt another large droplet of solder onto the tip of the iron. Hold 1 wire in each hand and overlap the ends. Keeping the ends as close together as possible run them over the solder droplet and melt them together. Be sure to use only enough solder to fill in the "valleys" created by putting the wires next to each other. Go over the whole joint to ensure that there are no bumps or spikes sticking up.

Slide the heat shrink centering it on the joint. Use a lighter (not the iron) with quick side to side motion to "shrink" the plastic to the wire. If you hold it in one place too long it will melt.

Now your done.

Wire to terminal end

This works the same as wire to wire, terminal ends can be purchased "pre-tinned" or you can use a crimp on terminal and tin it after removing the factory casing. Also the heat shrink should be the diameter of the terminal end after it is crimped (rolled around the wire).

Tin wire and terminal end, as stated above.
Slip heat shrink over wire.
Solder wire to terminal end as above also, but ensure to keep the wire centered in the "track"
Use needle nose to "roll" the "tabs" arouund the wire.
Cover with heat shrink and finish.

Wire to cup

For bulkhead connections and others that may incorperate cups.

I'll finish this later.
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